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The isometric training program was developed in the 60s of the last century and gained immense popularity among professional athletes around the world. At that time, the technique was used by athletes engaged in power sports and weightlifting. Today, the classes are applied in different sports directions, as well as with the purpose of rehabilitation in case of impaired motor activity. What is the essence of isometrics, how does it differ from static training and what are the popular exercises?
General rules and principles of isometric training
Isometry is based on a special method of muscle contraction, in which their stretching and movement of joints does not occur. This effect is achieved due to the short-term static stress of muscle fibers.
The essence of isotonic training is to exert maximum efforts aimed at performing an action that exceeds opportunities. A striking example is an attempt to move the wall or raise a knowingly heavy load.
To start cardio training should be after performing an easy warm-up. This will stretch the muscles and develop joints, which will reduce the risk of injury.
If you just master the isometry, start with the minimum time. Gradually prolong it, increasing the duration of muscle tension. The total duration of training should be 10-20 minutes.
You can conduct classes in several ways. You can do the whole complex of exercises, and then repeat them in a circle one or two more times. You can also execute 3 approaches at once, and after a short rest, proceed to the next task.
The muscles need some time to recover, so let them rest between approaches or circles. Duration should not exceed 1-1.5 minutes.
Isometrics is a kind of static exercise. However, it has a number of specific features, which is why classes are separated into a separate group. What is the difference? Statics involves a prolonged muscle strain, and isometry – a short-term with the maximum effort. Isometric training develops strength, endurance and increases overall tone. Static loads help to strengthen the muscles and develop ligaments and tendons.
Advantages and disadvantages of isometric training
Isometric exercises are very useful and have a number of advantages. First of all, due to the concentrated contraction and lack of stretching, the muscles become stronger and more enduring. These qualities are indispensable for athletes engaged in weightlifting or bodybuilding. Such a load will help develop muscle strength by working out those areas of muscles that need increased load in a particular period.
Isometric exercises improve the control over the position of the body. Such a result is achieved due to the static position and the gradual adaptation of the muscles to non-standard loads. In addition, such exercises develop flexibility.
Performing isometric exercises takes a minimum of time. The whole complex will take no more than half an hour to complete. In this case, the result after a few months of regular classes will exceed all expectations.
Isometry does not cause severe fatigue, so it does not require long rest and recovery.
You can conduct the training anywhere and at any time, for example, in public transport, at work or in line with a doctor. For this purpose, any surface or crossbeams are suitable.
One more advantage of isometrics is that all exercises are not very traumatic. First of all, this is due to the lack of movement. Due to low traumatism, such activities are suitable for people with limited motor activity, during recovery from injuries or after rehabilitation after illness.
One disadvantage is that training does not stimulate muscle growth, does not promote fat burning, and does not increase efficiency.
Exercises and exercises by isometric training
- “Pushing the Wall.” Stand up against the wall, resting your palms on it. Make every effort, trying to move it from the spot. Naturally, this will not work for you, but the applied force will favorably affect the work of the muscles. For one workout, you can work out different muscle fibers, performing the presented exercise with one or two hands, shoulder or forearm, a foot, head or foot.
To conduct isometric training, you can use the floor or the window sill. Press one hand from above, and the other from below, trying to “break” the surface in half. You can also use the doorway. Stand in the center and lean your hands in the parallel doors, trying to “push” them.
- Palm wrist. Stand up straight, spreading a little leg to maintain balance. Fold the palms together at the chest level. The ulnar joints are spread apart. Compress the palms, making maximum efforts and straining the muscles of the hands and chest. The duration of the voltage is 5-10 seconds. After a short break, repeat the exercise.
- Squats at the support. Stand at a level vertical surface. Sit down so that the hips are parallel to the floor, and the knee joints bend at an angle of 90 degrees. Straight back against the wall. Hold in position for a few seconds. Repeat the exercise 3-5 times with a little rest between the approaches.
- Push-ups. Adopt the position of the bar, flattering about the floor with the palms and toes of the feet. Make sure that the brushes are located strictly under the shoulder joints. Fall down, bending the elbows and spreading them as far as possible. Hold in the bottom position, maximally straining all involved muscles.
A unique attribute for performing isometric exercises is the chain. The special projectile has handles at the ends, which facilitates their retention during the execution of actions. An alternative is a rope or a long belt.
Examples of isometric exercises with chains according to the Samson method:
- Stand up straight, legs apart with shoulder width apart. Take the chain in hand, placing the brush at a sufficiently large distance from each other. Raise the limbs above your head and apply maximum force, trying to stretch or break the chain. During the exercise, strain not only the muscles of the hands, but involve the thoracic and dorsal.
- The task is similar to the first, but elongated hands with a chain are in front at the level of the chest.
- The starting position, as in the first exercise, but the hands with the chain are located behind the back.
- Exhale, emptying the lungs as much as possible. Wrap the chain of the chest. Inhale, straining the pectoral muscles and trying to break the shell.
- Secure one side of the chain to the foot. Stretch it by straining the triceps and biceps. Repeat the exercise on the other hand.
Isometric training is an effective way to work out an individual muscle in isolation, increasing its strength and endurance. Training takes a minimum of time, does not cause severe fatigue and does not require special physical training.