Proper and healthy eating. Proper nutrition as one of the most important elements of a healthy lifestyle is every day more and more people are interested. On our site there is even a separate course on proper nutrition. Food is something without which the vital activity of any person is impossible, and health is directly dependent on the diet. Poor quality or harmful food can damage the body, so it is very important to be able to make the right nutritional program for each day. Healthy food is not always the standard of taste, but from a position of use it has no analogues.
Proper and healthy nutrition today is no longer an indicator of aristocracy, but an answer to the pace and living conditions. More and more people today are involved in sports, which is inseparable from a healthy diet. Choosing a diet and drawing up a menu for the day, week, month becomes an urgent task for anyone who asks questions of weight loss, weight loss or muscle growth, improving overall well-being. In this lesson we will talk about the basic principles of proper nutrition.
Please treat these tips critically, as there are no strict laws in proper nutrition, but there are recommendations that can be supported by some experts and criticized by others.
What is proper nutrition?
The sources rarely find a clear and specific definition of the concept of healthy and proper nutrition. The most complete formulation of this term is as follows:
Proper nutrition (or healthy nutrition) is a balanced diet of natural and high-quality products that meet all the needs of the body, in addition, they are to his advantage.
One of the famous authors of books on nutrition is an American naturopath, an alternative medicine advocate, Herbert Shelton (1895-1985). His idea of the benefits of natural food became progressive: Shelton believed that nature took care of the human needs for food to the full, which means that our body needs only natural products.
Shelton also developed the nutritional concept of nutrition in the book The Right Mix of Foods. The idea of this diet in the incompatibility of certain foods with their simultaneous use. For example, the author argued that it is impossible to combine foods rich in proteins with carbohydrate-containing foods, combine milk with other foods, and fats with proteins. Separate nutrition interested not only those who want to lead a healthy lifestyle, but also experts in the field of nutrition and physiology. Clinical studies were carried out, which resulted in the establishment that it is not so much separate food that is beneficial as eating healthy food, since the principle of weight loss and a good state of the body are not affected by the principle of food separation, but by a general decrease in its caloric content.
Also relevant for proper nutrition are the postulates set forth in one of the most popular modern books on healthy food “Chinese research”. This work is written by renowned specialist Colin Campbell, Professor Emeritus, Department of Food Biochemistry, Cornell University, winner of the National Institutes of Health of the USA. Here are some conclusions from this book:
- food vitamin supplements will never replace natural products that contain the same set of vitamins;
- virtually all nutrients are better absorbed from plant foods than from foods of animal origin;
- proper nutrition helps to control the influence of negative external factors on the body;
- a properly formulated diet will never harm the body.
Summarizing the information from these works, we can highlight several recommendations about what you need to know about proper nutrition and healthy eating:
- Rule 1. Food is primarily a basis for life, a “fuel” for an organism from which energy is produced, and only then is ritual and pleasure.
- Rule 2. A healthy diet will save your body from premature aging, help to avoid many diseases of the cardiovascular system, certain types of cancer, diseases of the digestive tract, diabetes, hypertension. In addition, there is a certain list of products that contribute to the improvement of mental activity, read about them in this article.
- Rule 3. There is no place for compromise in healthy eating. Soda, chips, mayonnaise and other harmful products should be discarded. It is possible and even necessary to eat sweet, but not all the time and not all.
- Rule 4. Baked, stewed and boiled food is healthier than fried and smoked.
- Rule 5. Trust, but verify. With the development of the Internet, a huge number of various blogs and websites containing information about healthy eating and giving recommendations for improving the figure have appeared. But do not forget that the authors of blogs are not always professionals who really know their business.
That is why before you start applying one or another method on yourself, you should get acquainted with the feedback of other users as much as possible, read additional information about the author of the theory and analyze the results achieved by him. This simple advice will help you weed out unverified theories and thus avoid the risk of irreparable harm to your health, relying on non-professionals.
So, the basis of a healthy lifestyle is proper nutrition, which depends on the food we consume. According to the content of various nutrients and vitamins, all products can be divided into groups, which will allow you to make the best diet during the day.
Based on the principles of proper nutrition, experts at the Harvard School of Public Health, under the leadership of the American nutritionist Walter Villett, developed a universal nutritional pattern for a person during the day food pyramid. Products located in the lower part of the pyramid, it is recommended to eat as often as possible, and products from the upper part should be consumed in limited quantities or completely excluded from your diet. In addition, it is worth noting that at the base of this pyramid are also physical activity and sufficient fluid intake, preferably mineral water.
Whole Grain Bread, Oatmeal, Rice, and Pasta
This is the basis of a healthy diet. These products provide the body with complex carbohydrates, an important source of energy. Whole grain food is rich in B vitamins, minerals and fiber, essential for everyone. Contrary to popular belief, these products do not lead to weight gain if you do not add butter, cheese or sauces to them.
Vegetables provide us with vitamins, are an excellent source of protein, in addition, they are not rich in fats. The maximum amount of nutrients found in vegetables rich in green, yellow and orange, as well as in starchy vegetables – potatoes and yams. Vegetable juices are also very beneficial for the body.
Fruits – a rich source of vitamins, primarily vitamin C. These are low-calorie foods that contain almost no fat. Fruits are useful in any form: fresh, frozen, canned, dried, as well as in the form of juice, with the exception of highly sweetened nectars and fruit-based syrups.
Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts
Animal products are an excellent source of protein, iron, zinc, and B vitamins, as well as beans, nuts, and seeds. Tofu (bean curd), as well as white beans are rich in the necessary calcium for the body. Almonds are a good source of vitamin E.
Milk, cheese, yogurt
Dairy products are an indispensable source of calcium. They also provide the body with proteins and vitamin B12. For eating should choose low-fat varieties of dairy products, because they contain a minimum of cholesterol, saturated fat and, of course, calories.
Fats, oils and sweets
These foods are high in calories and very nutritious. They should not be abused, but you should not completely refuse. In the diet must be present vegetable oils, which are a rich source of vitamin E (the body needs 1 tablespoon per day). Products containing molasses may be useful as a source of iron.
Options for the daily diet in accordance with the food pyramid
Of these groups of products you can cook a lot of different dishes. An approximate daily menu of an average person might look like this:
- Breakfast: a small piece of meat, a portion of rice and 200 g of salad, a cup of tea with lemon, a small fruit.
- Snack: unsweetened fruit.
- Lunch: two bread toasts with lean fish, green salad without dressing, mineral water with lemon.
- Snack: kefir or yogurt.
- Dinner: steamed vegetables with toast, a glass of water with lemon.
- Breakfast: chicken breast, sprinkled with parmesan, boiled potatoes with green beans, a cup of tea with lemon, a small fruit.
- Snack: a handful of nuts.
- Lunch: a portion of brown rice with steamed vegetables, a glass of mint tea, a small fruit.
- Snack: kefir or yogurt.
- Dinner: 150 grams of low-fat cottage cheese, a small fruit, a glass of water.
It is worth noting that such a diet provides the needs of the average person in food. For those who want to lose weight or gain muscle mass, the menu should be adjusted in accordance with the individual characteristics of the body and the goal.
Healthy nutrition and weight loss
The desire to lose weight makes many people turn to nutrition, because the main cause of obesity is the use of unhealthy food, fast food and large amounts of sweets. The path to a beautiful healthy body is through building a proper diet and diet.
In search of an optimal weight loss program for yourself, you should not immediately go to the Internet and study “revolutionary techniques” that allow you to lose weight without any effort or food restrictions. It is necessary to treat with caution all methods offered in the network, since quite often they are compiled by people who do not have professional education in the field of dietetics and cannot guarantee a positive result. If you have the opportunity, be sure to make an appointment with a dietitian who will conduct an individual study of the characteristics of your body, and according to its results will suggest the most appropriate nutrition program for you in accordance with your goals. If the advice of a professional nutritionist for any reason is not available to you, you can use the advice of experts leading websites, forums and blogs on weight loss, read books on this subject, not forgetting to check the information offered to you, get acquainted with the reviews and recommendations of people experienced this technique on their own experience.
Any nutritionist with confidence will tell you that you can lose weight by reducing the number of calories consumed by a person per day. 1200 kcal is considered to be the minimum number of units of energy needed by an adult’s body daily. Calculate the number of calories needed to maintain weight at the current level by determining your total daily energy expenditure or, as it is called, TDEE (Total Daily Energy Expenditure). It is calculated from the indicator of the level of basal metabolism – the number of calories needed to keep a person at rest (BMR) multiplied by the activity factor.
The formula for calculating basal metabolism, based on weight, height and age of a person, is derived as follows:
- Males: 66 + (13.7 X body weight) + (5 X height in cm) (6.8 X age in years) level of the main metabolism.
- Females: 655 + (9.6 X body weight) + (1.8 X height in cm) (4.7 X age in years) level of the main metabolism.
The result must be multiplied by the activity factor, which is equal to:
- 1.2 sedentary lifestyle;
- 1,375 average activity (light exercises 1-3 per week);
- 1.55 high activity (intensive classes 3-5 times a week);
- 1,725 very high activity (heavy exercise 6-7 times a week);
- 1.9 extreme activity (very hard physical work, or intensive training 2 times a day).
After you determine how many calories you need per day to maintain your current weight, you can easily calculate how many calories you need to lose weight. Without harm to the body, you can reduce daily calorie intake by 10-15% of the required to compensate for energy consumption.
What you need to know, going to lose weight?
- It is important to understand that a diet for weight loss without sports will not bring quick results. To speed up the process, having previously derived the formula for the number of calories taking into account physical exertion, of course, and, having calculated the daily ration from it, it is possible only by doing special exercises. You will learn about them in the next lesson.
- When choosing a diet, it is best to consult with a specialist doctor, or at least opt for a well-known program, the effectiveness of which has already been tested by other people.
- If you start to sleep badly or feel constant fatigue and irritability, your overall health deteriorated – these are sure signs that the diet is bad or the amount of food consumed is not enough, which can damage your health and, therefore, the program needs to be revised or changed.
- Most low-carb diets need to be balanced. Carbohydrates – the basis that nourishes our body with energy. It is necessary to distinguish between fast and slow carbohydrates, while you can not completely abandon one and replace them with others. See here for more details. Weighted should be treated and express diets that allow you to lose weight in a short period of time. It should be remembered that losing weight with the help of a cucumber or buckwheat diet, you will soon gain weight again when you return to the usual diet.
- The number of meals – 4-5 per day. Portions are better to make small. It is advisable not to skip breakfast.
- Useful products for losing weight, allowing the body to maintain a balance of vitamins and minerals: apples, broccoli, wild berries, pomegranate juice, beans, garlic, nuts.
- The main thing is a positive attitude, willpower and determination. The rest is sure to work out.
Finally, an example of the menu for the day for women:
- Breakfast: oatmeal on the water, 1 apple, coffee with milk.
- The second breakfast: a glass of kefir, 2 peaches.
- Lunch: 1 baked potato, a piece of fish, vegetable salad with a tablespoon of oil.
- Snack: grated carrots with olives.
- Dinner: boiled broccoli, stewed chicken breast.
Proper nutrition for muscle growth
Proper nutrition for muscle growth. A healthy diet is just as important for gaining muscle mass as physical training. Food serves as a building material from which the body takes everything that it needs for the muscles.
In the case of a set of muscle mass, the same principle works as with losing weight, only in the reverse order. If you want to gain weight, you need to consume more calories than your body spends per day. At the same time, large amounts of fast carbohydrates and fats should be avoided, which, unlike protein, do not directly participate in the process of creating muscle tissue and can accumulate in the body, creating an extra fat layer. However, it is the fats and carbohydrates that are the main source of energy for training and therefore it is impossible to completely abandon them: you must eat at the right time and in the right amount (in accordance with TDEE).
If you are actively involved in sports, then for breakfast and lunch it is important to get enough carbohydrates, because they provide us with the energy that is needed for intensive workouts. But the main role in muscle growth is assigned to proteins. The well-known common truth is that in order for muscles to grow, you need to consume 2 g of protein per kilogram of body weight. In general, the nutrition process should be organized as follows: meals – 5-6 times a day every 3 hours, portions are average.
What you need to know about proper nutrition for muscle growth?
- Muscles grow when the amount of incoming energy in the form of food exceeds the amount of energy consumed per day. Calculate the daily need for calories using the formula described in the block on weight loss and increase it by 15-20% (on average + 300-500 kcal daily).
- If you follow the rules and do everything right, but your muscles do not grow, increase your carbohydrate intake at breakfast and after exercise by 40-50 g.
- Do not panic while you stop muscle growth. Muscles grow abruptly. After several weeks of progress, stagnation may occur, and after a week or two, growth will begin again.
- Smoking and alcohol abuse are unacceptable, not only if you play sports, but do not correlate with a healthy lifestyle in general.
- Top 10 products for gaining muscle mass: cottage cheese, oatmeal, buckwheat, chicken breast, turkey fillet, salmon, tuna, beef, eggs, fish oil. Read more about these products in our blog article.
- You should drink enough water. About this below.
To achieve muscle growth you need to follow this daily ratio of consumed macronutrients: protein (proteins) 25-30%, carbohydrates 55-65%, fats -10-15%.
- Protein. One gram of protein contains 4 kcal. The main sources of protein are chicken, turkey, meat (beef), fish, eggs, milk, cottage cheese, cheese, yogurt, protein powder, nuts, beans, peas, and soy. Proteins of animal origin (meat, poultry, milk, fish) are more nutritious than plant proteins (nuts, beans, peas, soybeans).
- Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates contain 4 kcal per gram. The main sources of carbohydrates are oats, potatoes, yams, rice, pasta, sugar, fruits, vegetables, bread, fruit juices, milk, biscuits, chocolate, corn, cereals.
- Fat. Fats contain 9 kcal per gram. The main sources of fat: butter, fatty meat, fatty fish, egg yolks, sauces, milk fat, cheese, biscuits, potatoes, nuts, olives, chocolate. Animal fats are more harmful for the body, primarily for the cardiovascular system than vegetable fats.
An approximate daily diet for muscle growth in men weighing 75-80 kg is as follows:
- First breakfast: 2 whole eggs, 7 egg whites, 1 bun, 3 tsp of jam, a large banana.
- Second breakfast: 150 g of chopped boiled breast without skin, 1 slice of low-fat cheese, 4 tbsp. spoons of fat-free mayonnaise, 1/2 onion, 3-4 tomatoes, 2 unleavened cakes.
- First lunch: 250 g of beef on the grill, 100 g of pasta, 3/4 cup of tomato sauce.
- Second lunch: 150 g grilled chicken breasts, 240 g boiled potatoes, 2 tbsp. spoons of fat-free mayonnaise, 1 cup of vegetable salad.
- First dinner: 500 g of skimmed milk, 2 scoops of whey protein, 3 tbsp. spoons of honey.
- Second dinner: 240 g of boiled fish, 240 g of boiled beans, 1 cup of boiled carrots.
Drinking regimen is an important element of a healthy lifestyle. Water is the basis of any living organism, including the human. Water regulates the water-salt balance in the body, body temperature, serves as the basis for the structure of new blood cells, normal functioning of the ligaments and joints, kidneys. Drinking enough water allows you to control your appetite.
What is the correct drinking regime? There are recommendations for diets, according to which you need to drink no more than 1 liter of water per day. In no case follow such diets can not. You will get the desired –5 kg per week, but your body will be dehydrated, which will affect your well-being and functionality. It is necessary to start drinking again when you want, and the weight will return. Remember, the rate of water for an adult per day is 2-2.5 liters, divided into equal doses over the same amount of time. Scientists derive this figure from the calculation of 30 ml of water per day per 1 kg of weight.
It is important to drink the right amount of water for those involved in sports. If the body is dehydrated, energy is absorbed by 10-30% worse, which directly affects the intensity of exercise and fatigue. It is recommended to drink a glass of water with lemon immediately after waking up – this speeds up the metabolism and favorably affects the digestive system.