If you take them into service, you can not only normalize your weight, but also maintain health and vigor for many years.
The concept of “9 Steps to Healthy Nutrition” proposed by the scientists of the State Research Center for Preventive Medicine, the Research Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences and the Cardiology Center is nothing sensational. However, if we adopt it, the principles laid down in it will help any of us not only to normalize our weight, but also to preserve our health and vigor for many years.
A healthy balanced diet should be based on a variety of foods, mostly of plant (not animal) origin.
There is not a single product that could provide our body with all the necessary substances. The only exception is female breast milk, which replaces the baby with all other products up to 6 months. Therefore, nutrition, scientists insist, should be as diverse as possible. Compliance with special diets is possible only on the recommendation of a doctor.
Bread, dishes and food products from cereals and pasta, potatoes, it is advisable to eat several times a day, at each meal. More than half of the daily diet should be covered by these products.
Scientists do not agree with the widespread belief that these products are only a source of energy and carbohydrates. They also contain many other substances necessary for health: dietary fiber, mineral compounds, vitamins of groups B and C.
It is erroneous, according to scientists, and the statement that these products contribute to the deposition of fat. In fact, the energy content in starch is much less than in the same amount of fat or alcohol. Most recommend eating more bread, better than black and wholemeal flour.
A variety of fruits and vegetables should be consumed several times a day in an amount of more than 400 grams in addition to potatoes. Consumption of vegetables should exceed the consumption of fruits. Vegetables and fruits – a source of antioxidants, folic acid, iron, vitamins and minerals, which reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.
Preference should be given to vitamins and other beneficial substances from natural sources, and not from tablets or dietary supplements.
Milk and dairy products with low fat and salt (kefir, sour milk, cheese, yogurt) should be consumed daily. Children, adolescents and women especially need dairy products.
If a person does not consume dairy products, he should include in the diet other foods rich in calcium – fish (sardines, salmon), dark green leafy vegetables.
Meat and meat products that are high in fat should be replaced by legumes, fish, poultry, or lean meats. Portions of meat, fish or poultry should be small. The number of meat products such as sausage, sausages, pates, should be limited.
Animal fat helps to increase blood cholesterol and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The WHO expert report on cancer recommended that no more than 80 grams of red meat be eaten per day.
The consumption of fat, including that contained in products (meat, milk, etc.), should be from 15 to 30% of the daily caloric content of food. It is better to cook food for a couple, boiling, baking or using a microwave. It should reduce the addition of fat in the process of cooking.
Particular attention is now paid to fatty acids, which are part of the fat we consume. They are:
- saturated (NLC) – in butter, solid margarines;
- polyunsaturated (PUFA) – in vegetable oils, fish and some soft margarines;
- monounsaturated (MUFA) – in olive, rapeseed and peanut oils.
The most useful MUFA, especially from olive oil. They have antioxidant properties and protect blood cholesterol from oxidation. The recommended consumption of PUFA should be about 7% of the daily diet, MUFA – 10-15%.
Preference should be given to a diet low in sugar – no more than 10% of the daily diet. Foods that contain a lot of sugar are an energy source, but are not a necessary component of a healthy diet. Sugar contributes to the development of caries. Scientists recommend drinking water, not sugary drinks.
The total salt intake, including salt contained in bread, canned foods, etc., should not exceed 6 g (1 tsp) per day. It is recommended to use iodized salt. Excessive salt intake is associated with high blood pressure.
Canned, salted, smoked products are not recommended to eat daily. Food should be salted moderately, and to improve the taste, add herbs and spices. Iodine deficiency is a common pathology, especially among children and women. Iodized salt will provide prevention of diseases caused by iodine deficiency.
The ideal body weight should correspond to the recommended limits (body mass index from 18.5 to 24.9). A moderate level of physical activity should be maintained.
The normal body mass index, or Quetelet index (IR), can be determined by the formula: IR = weight (kg) / height (m) 2. Suppose you have a weight of 80 kg, height – 1.65 m. We put the growth in a square – 1.652, we get 2.7225. Now we divide the weight of 80 kg by 2.7225, the result is 29.38. Index from 25 to 29 – evidence of excess weight – your case. And more than 30 signals obesity. The higher the index, the more overweight.
Excessive accumulation of fat in the abdomen poses a greater risk to health than its excess accumulation in the thighs, as it is associated with increased pressure, diabetes mellitus and the early development of coronary heart disease.
If you want to lose weight, it should be done slowly, changing the diet and increasing physical activity. Safe rate of weight loss – 500-800 grams per week. Do not follow a diet with a sharp restriction of such products as vegetables, fruits, bread and potatoes.
Alcohol consumption should be no more than 2 servings per day (one serving – 10 g of pure alcohol). With daily use of alcohol should refrain from taking it at least one day a week.
The side effects caused by alcohol consumption are related to its effect on the brain, liver, heart muscle, intestines, pancreas, and nervous system. Alcohol dependence leads to a deficiency of vitamins and minerals.
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